Archive | October, 2009


20 Oct

Copyright: protection for intellectual property

Intellectual Property: anything an individual has written or created. It might be music, text, pictures, photographs, sounds,and so on.

Fair Use Doctrine: part of the copyright laws. It states that limited portions of material may be used without permission for certain purposes, such as reporting the news or schoolwork.

Academic Standards for copyrighted material are higher than others. Because scholars and researchers study so many different ideas and are responsible for sharing those ideas with the world they are required to satisfy higher standards of honesty. They

Bibliographies are lists of sources that have been used in research. When using the

Basis Weight: the weight in pounds of a ream (500 sheets) of paper cut to a given standard size for that grade; e.g., 500 sheets 25 x 38 in. of 50-lb book paper weigh fifty pounds.

Bezler Curve
: The description of a character, symbol or graphic by its outline used by drawing programs to define shapes.

Bit: In computers, the basic unit of digital information; contaction of Blnary digiT.

Bit Map: In computer imaging, the electronic representation of a page, indicating the position of every possible spot( zero or one).

Blanket: In offset printing, a rubber-surfaced fabric which is clamped around a cylinder, to which the image is transferred from the late, and from which it is transferred to the paper.

Bleed: An extra amount of printed image that has lost its ink receptively and fails to print.

Blind Embossing: A design which is stamped without metallic leaf or ink, giving a bas-relief effect.

Body Type: A type used for the main part or text of a printed piece, as distinguished from the heading.

Bold-Face Type: A name given to type that is heavier than the text type with which it is used.

Bond Paper: A grade of writing or printing paper where strength, durability and permanence are essential requirements; used for letterheads, business forms, etc. The basic size is 17 x 22.

Book Paper: A general term for coated and uncoated papers. The basic size is 25 x 38.

Brightness: In photography, light reflected by the copy. In paper, the reflectance of brilliance of the paper.

Bulk: The degree of thickness of paper. In book printing, the number of pages per inch for a given basis weight.

Byte: In computers,a unit of digital information, equivalent to one character or 8 to 32 bits.

Caliper: The thickness of paper, usually expressed in thousandths of an inch (mills).

Camera-Ready: Copy which is ready for photography.

Caps and Small Caps: Two sizes of capital letters made in one size of type, commonly used in most roman type faces.

Cast Coated: Coated paper dried under pressure against a po.lished cylinder to produce a high-gloss enamel finish.

CCD (Charge Coupled Device): In digital prepress, a semiconductor light sensitive electronic device that emits an electrical signal proportional to the amount of light striking it. Used in cameras and video cameras.

CD-ROM (Compact Disc Read Only Memory): In digital prepress, a laser encoded optical storage disc that can store 650 megabytes to over 1 Gigabyte of data on a disc about the size of a traditional 5-inch floppy disk.

Chokes and Spreads: Overlap of overprinting images to avoid color or white fringes or borders around some image detail. Called trapping in digital imaging systems.

CMYK (Cyan,Magenta, Yellow, Black): The subtractive process colors used in color printing. Black (K) is added to enhance color and contrast.

Color Balance: The correct combination of cyan, magenta, and yellow to (1) reproduce a photograph without a color cast, (2) produce a neutral gray, or (3) reproduce the colors in the original scene or object.

Color Correction: Any method such as masking, dot-etching, re-etching, and scanning, used to improve color.

Color Filter: A sheet of dyed glass, gelatin, or plastic, or dyed gelatin, cemented between glass plates, used in photography to absorb certain colors and transmit others. The filters used for color separation are red, green, and blue (RGB).

Cold Color: In printing,a color with a blush cast.

Condensed Type: A narrow or slender typeface.

Contact Print: A photographic print made from a negative or positive in contact with sensitized paper, film or printing plate.

Contact Screen: A halftone screen on film having a dot structure of graded density, used in vacuum contact with the photographic film to produce halftones.

Continuous Tone: An image which contains gradient tones from black to white.

Contone: Abbreviation for continuous tone.

Contract Proof: A color proof representing an agreement between the printer and the customer regarding how the printed product will look.

Contrast: The tonal gradation between the highlights, middle tones and shadows in an original or reproduction.

Copy: A furnished material (type-written manuscript, pictures, artwork, etc.) to be used in the production of printing.

Copy Preparation: Directions for, and checking of, desired size and other details for illustrations, and the arrangement into proper position of various parts of the page to be photographed or electronically processed for reproduction.

Cover Paper: A term applied to a variety of papers used for the covers of catalogs, brochures, booklets and similar pieces.

Creep: Sometimes called a “push out,” it is the distance margins shift when paper is folded and/or inserted during finishing. The amount of creep will vary depending on both the number and thickness of the sheets and must be compensated for during layout and imposition.

Crop: To eliminate portions of the copy, usually on a photograph or plate, indicated on the original by cropmarks.

Cross Direction: In paper, the direction across the grain. Paper is weaker and more sensitive to changes in relative humidity in the cross direction than the grain direction.

CTP (Computer-to-Plate): In platemaking, Computer-to-plate systems or platesetters, eliminate the need for having a separate film-to-plate exposure system.

Curl: In paper, the distortion of a sheet due to differences in structure or coatings from one side to the other

Cutscore: In diecutting, a sharp-edged knife, several thousandths of an inch lower than the cutting rules in a die, made to cut part way into the paper or board for folding purposes.

Cyan: Hue of a subtractive primary and a 4-color process ink. It reflects or transmits blue and green light and absorbs re light.

Cylinder Gap: In printing presses, the gap or space in the cylinder of a press where the mechanism for plate (or blanket), clamps and grippers (sheetfed) is housed.

Deckle Edge: The untrimmed feathery edges of paper formed where the pulp flows against the deckle frame.

Densitometer: In photography, a photoelectric instrument which measures the density of photographic images, or of colors. In printing, a reflection densitometer is used to measure and control the density of color inks on the substrate.

Density: The degree of darkness (light absorption or opacity) of a photographic image.

Descender: That part of a lowercase letter which extends below the main body, as in “p.”

Desktop Publishing: Process of composing pages using a standard computer, off-the-shelf software, a device independent page description language like PostScript and outputting them on a printer or imagesetter.

Diecutting: The process of using sharp steel rules to cut special shapes for labels, boxes, and containers, from printed sheets. Diecutting can be done on either flatbed or rotary presses. Rotary diecutting is usually done with inline with the printing.

Die-Stamping: A intaglio process for the production of letterheads, business cards, etc., printing from lettering or other designs engraved into copper or steel.

Diffusion Transfer: In photography and platemaking, a system consisting of a photographic emulsion on which a negative is produce, and a receiver sheet on which a positive of the image is transferred during processing.

Digital Asset Management (DAM): Also known as Media Asset Management, it is a segment of the concept management market focused on the systematic cataloging and management of digital media (text, images, video and audio) and some physical media to enable their efficient storage, retrieval and reuse.

Digital Color Proof: A color proof produced from digital data without the need for separation films.

Drop-Out: Portions of originals that do not reproduce, especially colored lines or background areas (often on purpose).

Drum Scanner: Uses photo multiplier tubes (PMT) and produces color separations with higher resolution and dynamic range than CCD scanners.

DTP: Acronym for Desktop Publishing

Dummy: A preliminary layout showing the position of illustrations and text as they are to appear in a final reproduction. A set of blank pages made up in advance to show the size, shape, form and general style of a piece of printing.

Duotone: In photomechanics, a term for a two-color halftone reproduction from a one-color photograph.

DVD (Digital Video or Versatile Disc): A disk that can store audio, video and computer data at four or more gigabytes per disk.

Dynamic Range: Density difference between highlights and shadows of scanned objects.

Electronic Printing: In digital printing, any technology that reproduces pages without the use of traditional ink, water, chemistry, or lates. Also known as plateless printing.

Electrophotography: Image transfer systems used in copiers to produce images using electrostatic forces and toners.

Electrostatic Plates: Plates for high-speed laser printing using zinc or oxide or organic photoconductors.

Elliptical Dot: In halftone photography, elongated dots which give improved gradation of tones particularly in middle tones and vignettes — also called chain dots.

Em: In composition, a unit of measurement exactly as wide and high as the point size being set. So named because the letter “M” in early fonts was usually cast on a square body.

Embossed Finish: Paper with a raised or depressed surface resembling wood, cloth,leather, or other patterns.

Embossing: Impressing an image in relief to achieve a raised surface; either overprinting or on black paper (called blind embossing).

Emulsion Side: In photography, the side of the film coated with the silver halide emulsion.

En: In composition, one-half the width of an em.

Flatbed Scanner: A device that scans images in a manner similar to a photocopy machine; the original art is positioned face down on a glass plate.

Flush Cover: A cover that has been trimmed to the same size as the inside text pages as in this book.

Flush left (or right): In composition, type set to line up at the left (or right). This page is set left and right.

Flush Paragraph: A paragraph with no indentions.

Format: The size, style, type page, margins, printing requirements, etc., of a printed piece.

Front End System: In electronic publishing, the workstation or group of workstations containing the application software for preparing pages of type and graphics.

“F” Stops: In photography, fixed stops for setting lens apertures.

Gallery Proof: A proof of text copy before being made into pages.

Gamma: A measure of contrast in photographic images.

Gigabyte (GB): One billion bytes.

Grain: In papermaking, the direction in which most fibers lie which corresponds with the direction in which the paper is made on a paper machine.

Gray Balance: The dot values or densities of cyan, magenta, and yellows that produce a neutral gray.

Gray Level: The number of gray values that can be distinguished by a color separation filter — usually 28 or 256.

Grayscale: A strip of standard gray tones, ranging from white to black, placed at the side of original copy during photography to measure tonal range and contrast (gamma) obtained.

Gripper Edge: The leading edge of paper as it passes through a printing press. Also, the front edge of lithographic or wraparound plate secured to the front clamp of a plate cylinder.

Grippers: In sheetfed printing presses, metal fingers that clamp on paper and control its flows as it passes through.

GUI (Graphical User Interface): Pronounced “gooey,” in digital imaging, a technical term for a system that lets users manipulate files by pointing to pictures (icons) with a mouse or other pointing device instead of having to type in key commands.

Gum Arabic: In offset lithography,used in platemaking and on press to protect the non-printing areas of plates.

Gutter: The blanks space or inner margin from printing area to binding.

Hairline register: Register with a +/- 1/2 row of dots.

Halftone: The reproduction of continuous-tone images, through a screening process, which converts the image into dots of various sizes ans equal spacing between centers (AM screening), or dots of equal size with variable spacing between them (FM screening).

Hard Proof: A proof on paper or other substrates as distinguished from a soft proof which is an image on a VDT screen.

Hardware: Computer and peripherals as distinguished from software which is a program for operating hardware.

Head Margin: The white space above the first line on a page.

Hickeys: In offset lithography, spots or imperfections in the printing due to dirt on press, dried ink skin, paper particles, etc.

High Contrast: In photography, a reproduction with high gamma in which the difference in darkness (density) between neighboring areas is greater than in the original.

Highlight: The lightest of whitest parts in a photograph representing in a halftone reproduction by the smallest dots or absence or dots.

Holdout: In printing, a property of coated paper with low ink absorption which allows ink to set on the surface with high gloss. Papers with too much holdout cause problems with set-off.

HTML (HyperText Markup Language): In imaging for World Wide Web, the coding language that is used to create hypertext documents for use on the World Wide Web.

Hue: In color, the main attribute of a color which distinguishes it from other colors.

Hypertext: Links to other documents. Words or phrases in the document that are so defined that they can be selected and then cause another document to be retrieved, opened, and displayed.

ICC (International Color Consortium): The ICC was established in 1992 for the purpose of creating and promoting the standardization of an open, vendor-neutral, cross-platform system for managing color.

Imagesetter: In digital imaging, a generic term that applies to different film- output devices for type and graphics. The difference between an imagesetter and a typesetter is in the format of the data that has been converted from discrete-character raster lines to raster data using bitmaps.

Imposetter: In digital imaging , an imagesetter capable of outputting film flat with 4, 8 or more pages in imposed position.

JPEG (The Joint Photographic Experts Group): was formed to create a standard for color and gray scale image compression. JPEG describes a variety of algorithms (rules), each of which is targeted for a type of image application. JPEG is the default format for most digital cameras.

Justify: In composition, to space out lines uniformly to line up left and right.

Kerning: In typesetting, subtracting space between two characters, making them closer together.

Keyboard: The input device to input information directly into a typesetter, computer, workstation, or, as a stand-alone unit, to record it on paper or magnetic tape.

Keyline: In artwork, an outline drawing of finished art to indicate the exact shape, position, and size for such elements as halftones, line sketches, etc.

Kilobyte (K or kb or KB): 1024 bytes, the most common measure of computer file lengths.

Lamination: a plastic film bonded by heat and pressure to a printed sheet for protection or appearance.

LAN (Local Area Network): Communication link in a localized area, such as an office, building, complex of buildings or campus, with technology that provides a high-bandwidth, low-cost medium to which many computer nodes can be connected.

Laser (Light Amplified by Stimulated Emission of Radiation): The laser is an intense light beam with very narrow bandwidth used in digital-imaging devices to produce images by electronic impulses from computers or facsimile transmission.

Layout: The drawing or sketch of a proposed printed piece. In platemaking, a sheet indicating the settings for a step-and-repeat machine.

Leaders: In composition, rows of dashes or dots to guide the eye across the page. Used in tabular work, programs, table of contents, etc.

Leadings: In composition, the distance between lines of type measured in points.

LED (Light Emitting Diodes): That are used in place of lasers for some output systems.

Ledger Paper: A grade of business paper generally used for keeping records where it is subjected to appreciable wear to to it requires a high degree of durability and permanence.

Letterspacing: The placing of additional space between each letter of a word.

Line Copy: Any copy suitable for reproduction without using a halftone screen.

Logotype (or logo): The name of a company or product in a special design used as a trademark in advertising.

Lowercase: The small letters in type, as distinguished from the capital letters.

Lpi: Acronym for lines per inch.

M: Abbreviation for Mega, which is commonly used to mean one million. In computer terminology, however, M refers to the number 1,048,576, and is used to specify the amount of storage available on a disk or in memory. See Megabyte. Also, abbreviation of quantity of 1,000.

Magenta: Hue of a subtractive primary and four-color process ink. It reflects or transmits blue and red light and absorbs green light.

Magnetic Storage: Any disc, film, tape, drum or cone that is used to store digital information.

Mechanical: A term for a camera-ready paste up of artwork. It includes type, photo, line art, etc., all on one piece of artboard.

Megabyte (Mbyte, MB, Meg, or M): One million character codes on the computer. One million bytes or characters, often written MB or Mbyte. A unit of measurement equal to 1.024 kilobytes or 1,048,576 bytes.

Megahertz (MHz): Frequency equal to one million cycles per second. Meaure bandwidth or analog electronic signals.

Middletones: The tonal range between highlights and shadows of a photograph or reproduction.

Moire: In color process printing, the undesirable screen pattern cause by incorrect screen angles of overprinting halftones.

Montage: In artwork, several photographs combined to form a composite illustration.

Mottle: The spotty or uneven appearance of printing, mostly in solid areas.

Mouse: In computers, a hand-held device that moves the cursor on a workstation by moving the device on a flat surface.

Mylar: In offset preparation, a polyester film specially suited for stripping positives because of its mechanical strength and dimensional stability.

Negative: In photography, film containing an image in which the values of th original are reversed so that the dark area in the subject appear light on the film and vice versa.

Network: Two or more computers which are linked and share resources to perform related tasks. Group of computers that are connected to each other by communication lines to share information and resources.

Newsprint: Paper made mostly from groundwork pulp and small amounts of chemical pulp; used for printing newspapers.

Non-Impact Printer: An electronic device like a copier, laser or inkjet printer that creates images on a surface without contacting it.

OCR (Optical Character Recognition): An electronic means of scanning (reading) copy, and converting the scanned image to an electronic equivalent. The ability to “read” printed text (characters) and convert it into digitalized files that can be saved on disk and edited as a text file.

Off-Press Proofs: Proofs made by photomechanical or digital means in less time and at lower cost than press proofs.

Offset: See set-off. In printing, the process of using an intermediate blanket cylinder to transfer an image from the image carrier to the substrate. Short for offset lithography.

Page Description Language (PDL): In a digital prepress, a computer language designed for describing how type and graphic elements should be produced by output devices.

Page Makeup: Any stripping, assembly of all elements to make up a page. In digital imaging, the electronic assembly of page elements to compose a complete page with all elements in place on a video display terminal and on film or plate.

Pagination: In computerized typesetting, the process of performing an age makeup automatically.

Palette: In computers,the collection of colors or shades available to a graphic system or program.

Panchromatic: Photographic film sensitive to all visible colors.

PC: Acronym for personal computer.

PDF (Portable Document File): PDF is a universal electronic file format, modeled after the PostScript language and is device and resolution-independent. Documents in PDF format can be viewed, navigated and printed from any computer regardless of the fonts or software programs used to create the original.

Perfecting Press: A printing press that prints both sides of the paper in one pass through the press.

Photopolymer Coating: In photomechanics, a plate coating consisting of compounds which polymerize on exposure to produce tough abrasion-resistant plates capable of long runs especially when baked in an oven after processing.

Pica: Printer’s unit of measurement used principally in typesetting. One pica equals approximately 1/6 of an inch.

PICT: In digital imaging, a standard data format with which most Macintosh illustrations are encoded.

Pigment: In printing inks, the fine solid particles used to give inks color, transparency, or opacity.

Pin Register: In copy preparation, the use of accurately positioned holes and special pins on copy, film, plates, and presses to insure proper register or fit of colors.

Pixel: Short for “picture elements.” A pixel is the smallest resolvable point of a raster image. It is the basic unit of digital imaging.

PMS (Pantone Matching System): Color chart that has over 700 preprinted color patches of blended inks, used to identify, display, or define special colors.

PMT (Photomultiplier Tube): A light-sensitive sensor that can sense very low light levels by amplifying the signals applied to it during the sensing. PMT’s give drum scanners their superior colors and separation capabilities.

Point: Printer’s unit of measurement, used principally for designating type sizes. There are 12 points to a pica; approximately 72 points to an inch.

Porosity: The property of paper that allows the permeation of air, an important factor in ink penetration.

Portrait: In photography, vertical orientation of a format as opposed to landscape/horizontal orientation.

PostScript: A page description language developed by Adobe Systems, Inc. to describe an image for printing. It handles both text and graphics. A PostScript file is a purely text-based description of a page.

Preflighting: In digital prepress, the test used to evaluate or analyze every component needed to produce a printing job. Preflight confirms the type of disk being submitted, the color gamut, color breaks and any art required (illustrations, transparencies, reflective photos, etc.) plus layout files, screen fonts, printer fonts, EPS or TIFF files, laser proofs, page sizes, print drives, cropmarks, etc.

Presensitized Plate: In photomechanics, metal film or paper base plate that has been precoated with a light-sensitive coating.

Print Quality: A term describing the visual impression of a printed piece. In paper, the properties of the paper that affects its appearance and the quality of reproduction.

Process Colors: In printing, the subtractive primaries: yellow, magenta, and cyan, plus black in four-color process printing.

Process Lens: A highly corrected photographic lens with a flat field for graphic arts line, halftone, and color photography.

Ragged Left: In typesetting,type that is justified on the right margin and ragged on the left.

Ragged Right: In typesetting, type that is justified on the left margin and ragged on the right.

Raster Image Processor (RIP): In digital imaging,a combination of computer software and hardware that controls the printing process by calculating the bitmaps of images and instructing a printing device to create the images. Most PostScript systems use a hardware RIP built into the printer.

Register: In printing, fitting of two or more printing images in exact alignment with each other.

Register Marks: Crosses or other targets applies to original copy prior to photography. Used for positioning films in register, or for register of two or more colors in process printing.

Resolution: Ability of an input device to record, or an output device to reproduce the fine detail of an image. There is a difference between resolution and addressability or sampling rate. Resolution concerns how closely spots can b placed, and also whether gray levels can be distinguished. Resolution for output devices depends on addressability, bit-depth, mark size and color.

RGB (Red, Green, Blue): The primary additive colors used in display devices and scanners. Commonly used to refer to the color space, mixing system or monitor in color computer graphics.

Right-Angle Fold: In binding, a term used for two or more folds that are at 90 degree angles to each other.

Rub-Proof: In printing, an ink that has reached maximum dryness and does not mar with normal abrasion.

Saddle Stitch: In binding, to fasten a booklet by writing it through the middle fold of the sheets. Also called saddle wire.

Safelight: In photography, the special darkroom lamp used for illumination without fogging sensitized materials.

Scaling: Determining the proper size of an image to be reduced or enlarged to fit an area.

Scanner: An electronic device used in the making of color and tone-corrected separations of an image.

Screen Angles: In color reproduction, angles at which the halftone screens are placed in relation to one another; to avoid undesirable moire patterns. A set of angles often used is: black 45 degrees, magenta 75 degrees, yellow 9o degrees, cyan 105 degrees.

Screened Print: In photography, a print with a halftone screen made from a halftone negative or by diffusion transfer.

Screen Ruling: The number of lines or dots per inch on a halftone screen.

SCSI (Small Computer Systems Interface): Pronounced “skuzzy,” SCSI is an interface used to transmit digital data and to connect computers to peripherals. An industry-standard interface for hard drives and other storage devices that allows for very fast transfers of information.

Serif: The short cross lines at the ends of the main strokes.

Server: A file server provides file data interchange between compatible peripheral devices on a local area network. Servers are identified by the type or resource they provide (e.g., disk server, file server, printer server, communications server).

Set-off: In presswork, when the ink of a printed sheet rubs off or marks the next sheet as it is being delivered. Also called offset.

SGML (Standard Generalized Mark-up Language): one of the newer languages for marking text for a variety of purposes, including typesetting and disk publishing. A well-designed SGML scheme enables the publisher to mark text just once for multiple uses.

Shadow: The darkest parts in a photography, represented in a halftone by the largest dots.

Sharpen: To decrease in color strength, as when halftone dots become smaller, opposite of dot spread or dot gain.

Side Guide: On sheetfed presses, a guide on the feed board to position the sheet sideways as it feeds into the front guides before entering the impression cylinder.

Signature: In printing a binding, the name given to a printed sheet after it has been folded.

Small Caps: An alphabet of small capital letters available in most roman typefaces approximately the size of lowercase letters. Used in combination with larger capital letters.

Spectrophotometer: Instrument for measuring color for CIE color spaces. It is more accurate than most color color emitters.

Spectrum: The complete range of colors, from short wavelengths (blue) to long wavelengths (red).

Spiral Binding: A book bound with wires in spiral form inserted through hole punches along the binding side.

Step-and-Repeat: In photomechanics, the procedure of multiple exposure using the same image by stepping it in position according to the predetermined layout or program.

Stet: A proofreader’s mark, written in the margin, signifying that copy marked for corrections should remain as it was.

Stochastic Screening: A digital screen process that converts images into very small dots (14-40 microns) of equal size and variable spacing. Second order screened images have variable size dots and variable spacing. Also called Frequency Modulated (FM) screening.

Stock: Paper or other material to be printed.


Historical Terms Archival: Term loosely used to refer to material that can be used without side effects in the conservation or care of important artifacts.

Archival Printing: Techniques for printing books, documents, and records intended to last 150 years or more.

Autochrome: The first commercially successful screen plate for color photography, introduced in 1904 by Auguste and Louis Luminere in Lyons, France.

Aniline Printing: An early name for rotary letterpress printing with rubber plates and fluid, fast-drying inks that contained dyes derived from aniline oils.

Beard: In hot metal typesetting, the beveled space below the printing surface of a type letter.

Block Printing: Printing from wooden or linoleum blocks with the printing image cut in relief. Used before the invention of movable type, and now limited to special art reproductions, and decorative wallpaper and fabric printing.

Counter: The white space enclosed by a letterform, whether wholly enclosed or partially, e.g., as seen with d or o or with c or m.

Daguerreotype: A positive image produced on a silver coated copper plate. The first practical photographic process, it was invented by Louis J.M. Daguerre in 1839. The image is developed by exposing the plate to metallic mercury vapors.

Electrotype: A duplicate relief printing plate that is made by molding a sheet of hot plastic or wax mold against the original relief plate, electroplating the mold with a coating of copper or nickel, shaping the plate into a cylinder, and backing it with a plastic, wood, or metal support system.

Graphic Communications: Allied industries, including printing, publishing, advertising and design, that participate in the production and dissemination of text and images by printed or electronic means.

Laserwriter, Apple: The first desktop laser printer to contain PostScript, introduced in 1985 by Apple.

Linecasting Machine: A keyboard or tape-controlled hot-metal device that sets complete lines of type.

Litho Stone: A Bavarian limestone. A flat porous stone used as a lithographic image carrier by early lithographers and by contemporary printmakers.

Magazine: In hot-metal typography, the storage compartments in the circulation system of the character matrices.

Rubel, Ira: The man credited with the invention of the offset-lithographic press. He designed the first press with a blanket cylinder in 1905.

Stereotype: Early method of imaging cylinders for letterpress web presses. Involved pressing a flat metal relief plate against a papier-mache mold (called a “flong”). The mold was wrapped inside a cylindrical carrier, and molten metal was poured into the mold to form the relief cylinder.


Abrasion Resistance: The resistance of a paper or paperboard surface to being worn down, roughened, or disrupted by sliding frictional contact with other surfaces, as measured by the weight loss of a weighed test sample.

Accelerator: (1) An alkali, or base, used to activate a developing agent to make it more effective. (2) A substance added, or a method used, to hasten the natural process or progress of an event or series of events, such as ink drying.

Acetone: (1) A solvent used in gravure inks to accelerate drying. (2) An ingredient in many lacquer thinner compounds and adhering liquids that is used to remove lacquer-adhered knife-cut stencils and lacquer blockouts from screen-printing fabrics.

Addition Agent: In gravure, a material added in small quantities to plating solution for the purpose of modifying the character of a deposit.

Adhesion: The state in which two surfaces are held together by interfacial forces; measure of the strength with which one material sticks to another.

Blanket Wash: An oil-based solvent used for cleaning the blanket and rollers on the press.

Bodying Agent: A material added to an ink to increase its viscosity and drying time.

China Clay: A natural white mineral pigment-hydrated aluminum silica-used in paper coatings and as an ink extender. Alternative term: kaolin.

Coating Mottle: A small variation in gloss that can be detected on a coated, calendered sheet by viewing it at an angle to check for specular reflection from the surface.

Detergent Resistance: How well an applied ink or coating withstands the effects of chemicals.

Dilutent: A solvent that is added to reduce viscosity.

Doubletone Ink: A printing ink tat produces the illusion of two-color printing with a single impression. These inks contain a soluble toner that bleeds out to produce a secondary color.

Dye Emulsions: Screen printing inks in which dyes (liquids suspended in a viscous medium), rather than pigments (powders), contribute the color effects.

Extender: (1) A transparent or white pigment or binder used to adjust the working properties and reduce the color strength of a printing ink without affecting its hue. (2) The parts of the letterform that extended the below the baseline, e.g., p,q.

Flushed Pigment: The result when a wet pigment is processed in a mixer along with a selected varnish and transferring from the water to the varnish.

Heavy Bodied: Inks with a high viscosity or stiff consistency.

Indicator: A dye that changes color with shifts in pH.

Lake: An ink colorant formed when a soluble dye is converted into a pigment in the presence of an inorganic white base such as alumina hydrate or white gloss.

Masstone: The color of an ink in bulk, such as in a can, or of a thick ink film. It is the color of light reflected by the pigment and often differs from the printed color of the ink.

Nonreflective Ink: Most often a black ink used to form the optical characters that are read by OCR devices. This nonreflective ink contrasts greatly with the paper, and enables the scanner to form a recognition pattern to identify the characters.

Organic Dye: A general classification of pigments that are carbon-based, as opposed to metallic pigments.

Oxidation: A slow chemical reaction of the reactive drying oil of printing ink with oxygen to produce a dry ink film.

Top Drier: A substance, typically the heavy metal cobalt, that is mixed with lithographic ink to speed the oxidation (hardening) of the ink film surface.

Vehicle: A liquid composed of a varnish, waxes, driers, and other additives that carries the ink colorant (pigment), controls the flow of the ink or varnish on the press, and after drying, binds the pigment to the substrate.

Videoelastics: A material, such as an offset printing ink, that behaves as both a fluid and an elastic solid.

Zahn Cup: Measurement device for measuring the viscosity of a liquid based on the speed by which the liquid passes through the cup.


1D-MH: One-dimensional modified Huffman

3GL: Third generation (computer) language.

AAL: ATM adaption layer.

AAUI: Apple auxiliary unit interface.

BACP: Bandwidth allocation control protocol.

BACT: Best achievable control technology.

BASIC: Beginner’s all-purpose symbolic instruction code.

BER: Bit error rate.

C2S: Paper coated on both sides.

CAB-EDI: Cyber-assisted business electronic data interchange.

CALS: (1) Computer-aided acquisition and logistic support; (2) Continuous acquisition and lifecycle support.

CAN: Cancel character.

DC: (1) direct current; (2) device context

DIL: dual inline

DOLE: distributed object linking and embedding

DPMI: DOS protected mode interface

E-TO-B: emulsion-to-base

EBCDIC: extended binary coded decimal interchange code

ECF: elemental chlorine-free (paper)

EMI/RFI: electromagnetic interference/ radio frequency interference

EMX: enterprise messaging exchange

FIFO: first in, first out

FSI: free-standing insert

GIBR: graphics industry bar code

GIGO: garbage in, garbage out

GPIO: general-purpose input output

GUID: global universal identification

HeNeCs: helium neon laser contact screen

HSV: hue, saturation, and value

I- BASIC: internet beginners all-purpose symbolic instruction code

IDDE: integrated development and debugging environment

IMC: image color matching

IOC: ISDN ordering code

ISBN: International Standard Book Number

JOE: Java objects everywhere

LCS: liquid-crystal shutter

LSL: link support layer

LUT: look-up table

MAC: (1) medium-access control (2) media-access control (3) metropolitan area exchange (4) multiply accumulate

MC: microchannel

MIPS: million instructions per second

MMCK: multimedia communications exchange server

MP: multilink point-to-point protocol

MTBF: mean time between failures

NAK: negative acknowledge

NCR: no-carbon-required paper

ODBC: open database connectivity

ODG: optical dot gain

PDG: physical dot gain

pH: potential of hydrogen

PLAR: private-line auto ringdown

PNP: Plug and play

PPTP: Point-to-point tunneling protocol

QWERTY: Standard keyboard layout

RLP: Radio link protocol

SCSI: Small computer systems interface

SMS: (1) Short message system (2) Storage management services

TCF: totally chlorine free (paper)

TMP: thermomechanical paper pulp

USB: universal serial bus

VON: voice on/over the Net

VXD: virtual device driver

WORM: write once, read many

ZM: zoomed video


Agate: (1)Body type measuring approximately 5 1/2 points. The agate is frequently used to specify the depth of newspaper advertising. Fourteen agate lines are equivalent to one column inch. (2) A polished stone tool used in bookbinding to burnish the edges of books after applying metal leaf.

Aliasing: A jagged or “staircase” effect in a raster image, caused by an insufficient number of image samples. See also: anti-aliasing

Alley: The spaces between tabular copy. It is occasionally referred to as column margins or columns. See also: gutter.

Anti-Aliasing: In computer graphics, a procedure whereby pixels at the edge of a diagonal or curved surface are averaged with those of the background in order to produce a smoother edge and minimize the effect of unwanted patterns (jaggies). Alternative term: dithering. See also: aliasing.


Crop: To cut out parts of a picture.

CD Rom: Disk used to store information.

Keyboard: Device used to type on a computer.